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Belling, Veronica and Ginsburg, Natalie,  “A Very Personal Journey”, Jewish Affairs, Pesach 2014, pp 14-15 Cape Town Philanthropic Association minute book 1897-1903

De Saxe, M, The South African Jewish Year Book; Directory of Jewish Organisations and Who’s Who in South African Jewry, 1929, 5689-90, SA Jewish Historical Society, Johannesburg, 1929, 285

Frankel, Glenn, Rivonia’s Children: Three families and the Price of Freedom in South Africa. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1999, 156

Gitlin, Marcia, The Vision Amazing; the Story of South African Zionism, The Menorah Book Club, Johannesburg, 1950 , 49-50

Greenbaum, Masha,  The Jews of Lithuania: A history of a remarkable community 1316 – 1945 (Gefen Jerusalem),  200

Historic Route - Malmesbury Tourism Swartland Directory for


Kretzmar,  Julius, “A Vanished Era: Shtetl Life in the Swartland in the Twenties”: Nostalgic memories of             Malmesbury”, Jewish  Affairs, June 1986, 17

Leeson, Dan, Military Conscription in Russia in the 19th Century.[1]

Lipman, VD A Century of Social Service: 1859-1959: The Jewish Board of Guardians, (Routledge & Kegan             Paul, London, 1959), 78.

Lithuanian Holocaust Atlas, pp 130 ,131


Malmesbury | Jewish Journeys in the Western Cape › 2013/02/15 › malmesbury


Markowitz, Arthur, “They  helped to build South Africa; The Story of South African Jewry:, IN SA Jewish Times, 7.11.1947,  quoted in a hand wrttien article by Dr Julius Kretzmar titled ’A vanished era: Shttel Life in the Swartland in the 1920s: Nostalgic memories of Malmesbury”


McKenzie, R (editor), Cape Journal, No 1, 1998,8


Polsky, Old Reb Aaron, In Sherman, Joseph, From a Land Far Off, (Jewish Publications, Cape Town, 1987),24-Phillips,

Howard Plague, Pox and Pandemics, Jacana, Cape Town, 2012


Saron, G.  Jewish Immigration 1880-1913 in Saron, G and Hotz, L. The Jews In South Africa: A History, (Oxford University Press, Cape Town, 1955),100.


Schrire, Carmel & Schrire, Gwynne, The Reb and the Rebvel: Jewish narratives n South Africa 1892- 1903, Kaplan Centre, 2016.


Schrire, Gwynne,  “Immigration Restrictions, Plague and the Jews in Cape Town, 1901”, Jewish Affairs, 63:3 Chanukah 2008


Schrire, Gwynne, Litvaks who Returned to Europe and Why,  Jewish Affairs, 61:1, Pesach 2008


Schrire, Gwynne, Rabinowitz, Bennie and Veronica Belling, “Remembering Birzh” Jewish Affairs, Vol 70: No 3 Chanukah 2015)


Schrire, Gwynne, Adapting To A New Society-The Role Of The Cape Town Jewish Philanthropic Society C.1900 Proceedings of 11th Annual Conference South African Association of Jewish Studies. Durban, 1988


Jewish Life in Southern African Country communities. Vol II,, SA Friends of Beth Hatfutsoth. Johannesburg,2004, pp 405-406

Tatz, Colin, Peter Arnold, and Gillian Heller, Worlds Apart: The Re-Migration of South African Jews, Rosenberg, Australia, 2007, 43, 133


Van Heyningen, Elizabeth, “Cape Town and the Plague of 1901”, In Saunders, Christopher, Phillips, Howard and van Heyningen, Elizabeth, Studies in the History of Cape Town, Vol 4, 1981



Zionist Record, April 14,1916


Dr Sorrel Kerbel nee Stein, London, by e-mail 4.1.2020

Althea Kretzmar, by e-mail, 25.1.20202

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